Pija Hočevar

"​Versatile musician, who explores and is musically witty, she likes to surprise." I.V.

Tekmovanje? Ja, prosim?!/ Competition? Yes, please?!

Navdih iz / Inspired by David Shenk: The genius in all of us

»Vsako naravno darilo se mora razvijati s tekmovanji,« je zapisal Nietzsche. Medtem ko o dosežkih razmišljamo kot o posameznem pojavu, človek ni otok. V svojem bistvu, je človeštvo družbeno in konkurenčno podjetje. Učimo se drug od drugega, delimo drug z drugim in nenehno primerjamo in tekmujemo med seboj za naklonjenost, dosežke in vire. Ne moremo torej vsega preprosto prepustiti genom, vitaminom in staršem, da bi spodbujali veličino; spodbujanje individualnih dosežkov mora biti tudi dolžnost družbe. Vsaka kultura si mora prizadevati za spodbujanje vrednot, ki prinašajo najboljše. Kulturne razlike so zelo pomembne.

“Every natural gift must develop itself by contests,” wrote Nietzsche. While we tend to think of achievement as an individual phenomenon, no human is an island. At its essence, humanity is a social and competitive enterprise. We learn from one another, share with one another, and constantly compare and compete with one another for affection, accomplishment, and resources. It cannot, then, simply be left to genes, vitamins, and parents to foster greatness; spurring individual achievement must also be the duty of society. Every culture must strive to foster values that bring out the best in its people. Cultural differences matter enormously.

Kako lahko najbolje ustvarimo učilnice, pisarne in skupnosti, kjer se nagrajujejo tekmovalni instinkti, toda kjer se manj konkurenčni posamezniki počutijo energizirani in ne zadušeni? Ni presenetljivo, da se izkaže, da je zagotovitev kratkoročnih nalog, jasno in smiselno. Če so kratkoročne naloge primerne za dolgoročne cilje, so raziskovalci ugotovili, da se bodo tudi LAM-i prepustili in uživali v izzivu. To se popolnoma ujema z Ericssonovo “premišljeno prakso” – zadovoljstvo, da si močno prizadeva za obvladovanje kratkoročnih ciljev, učenje uživanja v procesu in ne osredotočanje na velik prepad med trenutnimi sposobnostmi in oddaljenim idealom. Prav tako jasno kaže na novo smer za šole, ki morajo priznati, da so sposobnosti dosegljive spretnosti in ne prirojene entitete ter da morajo najti način, da motivirajo vsakega otroka.

(LAM – nimajo radi tekmovanj, ga ne iščejo in so manj srečni ter produktivni, ko so potisnjeni v tekmovalno situacijo. So bolj uspešni, ko sledijo “mojstrskemu cilju”, izboljšavi sposobnosti v primerjavi s seboj rajši kot z drugimi.)

How can we best create classrooms, offices, and communities where competitive instincts are rewarded, but where less competitive individuals also feel energized rather than suffocated? Not surprisingly, the answer turns out to be making sure that near-term tasks are clear and meaningful. If these tasks can be made relevant to long-term goals, researchers have found, that even LAMs will dive in and relish the challenge. This fits perfectly with Ericsson’s “deliberate practice”—the satisfaction of working hard to master near-term goals, learning to enjoy the process rather than focus on the large gulf between current abilities and the far-off ideal. It also points clearly to a new direction for schools, which must recognize that abilities are achievable skills and not innate entities and must find a way to motivate every child.

(LAM – they do not like to compete, do not seek it out, they are less happy and productive when they are pushed into it. They are more successful when they follow the “mastery goal”, improving their ability compared to oneself rather than to others.)

Toda “katerakoli metoda je uporabljena”, učitelj ne sme nikoli domnevati, da učenec/študent, ki sprva ne razume razlage, ni sposoben napredovati.

But “whatever method is used”, the teacher should never assume that a pupil/student who initially fails to understand an explanation is therefore incapable of progressing.

Šole se lahko prilagodijo dejstvu, da imajo različni ljudje različne načine učenja. Ni protislovje, če želimo ohraniti visoka pričakovanja vsakega učenca in pokazati sočutje in ustvarjalnost tistim, ki neizogibno ne izpolnijo teh pričakovanj. Neuspeh je treba razumeti kot priložnost za učenje in ne kot razkritje notranjih meja učencev.

Schools can adapt to the reality that different people have different ways of learning. It is not a contradiction to maintain high expectations of every student and to show compassion and creativity for those who, inevitably, do not immediately meet those expectations. Failure should be seen as a learning opportunity rather than a revelation of students’ innate limits.

Določite visoka pričakovanja, pokažite pa tudi sočutje, ustvarjalnost in potrpežljivost. Isti sklop načel velja tudi za druge sektorje družbe in kulture.

Set high expectations, but also show compassion, creativity, and patience. This same set of principles applies to other sectors of society and culture.

ZDRAVO RIVALSTVO, VISOKA PRIČAKOVANJA, SPOŠTOVANJE IN SOČUTJE ZA VSE. GENIJ V VSEH NAS JE, DA LAHKO VSI SKUPAJ RASTEMO.

HEALTHY RIVALRY, HIGH EXPECTATIONS, RESPECT AND COMPASSION FOR ALL. THE GENIUS IN ALL OF US IS THAT WE CAN ALL GROW TOGETHER.

~ David Shenk

With love, Pija


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